12th Zoology

Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

Energy crisis

Energy crisis is due to the increase in population accompanied by
rapid urbanization and industrialization. Our resources of petroleum and natural gas are dwindling day by day. We can hardly expect the oil industry to operate at full capacity until the last drop is removed from the ground. It appears that we will run out of petroleum and natural gas by about 2020 unless domestic supplies are extended by taking one or more of the
following steps.

Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

1.Reduce the consumption of fuels :

The principal target areas are heating
and transportation, which account for about 18% and 25% respectively, of our total energy requirements. The consumption of fuel in these areas can be reduced by (a) proper insulation of existing buildings and design changes in
new constructions (eg. using less plate glass), (it saves about 33% of energy) (b)improving the fuel economy of automobiles, (c) using more efficient means of transportation. (Energy crisis)

2. Develop new sources of energy:

The energy crisis has prompted the development of alternate energy sources (alternatives to fossil fuels) other than the heat available from the combustion of fossil fuels. (a)Wind Energy :
In India, the wind power is of great significance as there are large
coastal, hill and desert areas where wind energy can be usefully exploited for generation of electricity and water pumping.

The harnessing technology of wind energy is simple. The strike of the blowing wind on a specially designed blades of a windmill’s rotor causes it to rotate. This rotation, which is the mechanical energy, when coupled to a turbine, drives the power generator. (Energy crisis)

The wind energy thus delivers on the spot small quantities of energy. The Indian subcontinent is a high wind zone
with energy potential estimated at about 20,000 MW. Wind farms are already located in Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh.

Advantages of wind power :

i.Power generation is cheaper. Power is
procured at 40 paise per unit

ii. free from pollution and environmental

iii. Since generation is continuous unlike in diesel power,
investment is never idle.

(b) Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy is fast emerging as a significant source of
electricity in several island nations, mainly in the Indian oceans and the
Pacific regions. Geothermal plants make use of naturally heated steam drawn to the surface through a series of boreholes. (Energy crisis)

Hot Rocks for energy generation

The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) technology is especially suitable for
countries like India, where the geological pattern favours easy exploitation of this source. Tapping of energy involves drilling of holes several km deep into the earth where the temperature of rocks ranges form 200 – 250oC. Water is pumped into these bore holes and allowed to circulate through the source rock’s fracture net work, which may have fissures barely a few millimeter wide.

This water is then ejected under pressure from a second
hole in the form of steam. The steam is used to power turbines for electricity generation, after which it is condensed back to water that can be used again. (c) Mini hydel generation
Energy generation from small water source is probably the most cheapest and reliable of all renewable energy sources. It can be harnessed conveniently from nearby canal or stream in a most environmentally benign manner. Nature has been very generous and bounteous in providing a vast hydro electric potential to the Indian subcontinent. (Energy crisis)

(d) Ocean energy  (Energy crisis)

The various methods of extracting energy from oceans are as follows.

1.Ocean winds, 2.Ocean waves, 3.Ocean tides, 4.Ocean currents, 5.Ocean geothermal, 6.Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), 7.Salinity gradient and 8.Bioconversion of sea weeds.
India’s first power plant generating electricity from ocean energy is
commissioned at Vizhinjam fishing harbour in Kerala to provide energy of 150 MW in a year.

Tidal energy : (Energy crisis)

Ocean waves and tides contain large amount of energy.
Tidal energy is important because it is renewable, pollution free and more stable in comparison with hydroelectric power which is dependent on monsoon cycle. Tidal power plants are being designed in the Bay of Canada, Kutch in India etc where tides have been found to be in the right range.(e) Solar energy:

Solar energy is another energy source. Each year the earth receives from the sun an enormous total of 5 × 1020 k.cals of energy. Solar energy, which is the primary source of all energy forms on the earth, is the renewable form of energy.

Advantages of solar energy:

(a) Solar energy is a kind of universal, decentralized and non-polluting energy (b) it helps considerably in maintaining the ecological balance through the process of photosynthesis and green house effect. (c) it has none of the disadvantages found in the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil or gas.

(f) Nuclear energy : (Energy crisis)

Nuclear energy is the only energy source, known to be economically feasible in the present and for the near future. It can replace fossil fuels. In nuclear fission, a heavy atom splits under neutron bombardment into smaller fragments, with the evolution of huge amount of energy. In spite of this advantage the problem of disposal of nuclear wastes remains. Nuclear fusion is expected to be an ideal energy source for the future. In nuclear fusion, light nuclei such as deuterium (21H) and tritium (3
1H) combineto form heavier stable nuclei.

Moreover, the products of fusion are not radioactive and so safety
hazards associated with fission reactors are greatly reduced. The light isotopes needed for fusion are sufficiently common to supply all of our energy needs for hundreds of years. Unfortunately, the above fusion reaction has not been perfected to sustain flow of energy.

(g) Bio gas or Gobar gas:

Gobar gas plants are based on anaerobic fermentation of organic
wastes in the absence of air. Through gaseous stage the heating efficiency of the cattle dung increased production by about 20%. There is a production of an organic manure which is about 43% better than dry cattle dung itself. This manure can also reduce pressure on naptha-based fertilizers. It has been estimated that 10m3 of biogas has energy equivalent of 6.0 m3 of natural gas,
3.6 litres of butane, 7.0 litres of gasoline or 6.1 litres of diesel fuel.

(h) Hydrogen – Source of power for future

The hydrogen has been found to be a good choice among all the
alternative fuel options. It can be produced in virtually unlimited quantities with on hand production technologies. It has been established that hydrogen can meet all the energy needs of human society, including power generation more efficiently and more economically than petro fuels, and with total compatibility with the environment. In addition, hydrogen is non-toxic, reasonably safe to handle, distribute and use as a fuel. Hydrogen has the
highest mass energy content – its heat of combustion per unit weight is about 2.5 times that of hydrocarbon fuel, 4.5 times that of ethanol and 6.0 times that of methanol. Its thermodynamic energy conversion efficiency of 30-35% is greater than that of gasoline (20-25%).

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Human population and explosion

  2. Population Explosion

  3. Growing Population and Environmental impacts

  4. Global warming – Green house effect

  5. Ozone layer depletion

  6. Prevention and Effect of Ozone depletions

  7. Waste management – Classification

  8. Management of hazardous wastes

  9. Management of non hazardous wastes

  10. Waste water treatment and management

  11. Biodiversity

  12. Conservation of Biodiversity

  13. Characteristics of a Bioreserve

  14. Energy crisis and its environmental impact

  15. Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

  16. Environmental impacts of Power Sources

  17. Poverty and environment

  18. Fresh water crisis and management

Unit 6. APPLIED BIOLOGY Topic List Zoology

  1. Livestock and Management

  2. Important cattle breeds and their characteristics

  3. Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds

  4. Dual purpose breeds & Draught breeds

  5. Exotic breeds of cattle

  6. Common diseases and control in Cattle – Contagious diseases

  7. Non-contagious diseases – Cattle

  8. Techniques adopted in cattle breeding

  9. Poultry Breeds

  10. Farming methods

  11. Poultry byproducts

  12. Fish Pond

  13. Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu

  14. Medical Lab Techniques – Stethoscope

  15. Sphygmomanometer

  16. Haemocytometer

  17. Urine Sugar analysis

  18. ECG Electrocardiogram

  19. Computed Tomography CT

  20. Endoscopy (Laproscopy) techniques , Artificial Pacemaker

  21. Autoanalyser

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