12th Zoology

Farming methods

Farming methods

Poultry farming has now become very popular. It is recoginzed as an
organised and scientifically based industry with tremendous employment
potential. It plays an important part in the rural economy of India. It provides
a ready source of income to the cultivator. Besides meat and eggs, poultry
supplies feathers and rich manure.The following factors are being taken into
consideration for the growth of poultry farming 1) small initial investment
2) availability of quality chicks 3) short generation interval 4) quick, assured
and better returns compared to other livestock species 5) availability of
trained man power 6) better understanding and knowledge of the improved
and scientific methods of feeding 7) management and health control.

Rearing involves the following stages:- Selection of eggs, incubation and
hatching of eggs, brooding or care of new borns, housing of poultry, feeding
of poultry are the important steps in rearing of chickens. (Farming methods)

1. Selection of eggs:- (Farming methods)

Eggs meant for hatching and rearing must be selected
very carefully. The following points should be considered during selection of

(1)The egg should be fertile (2) Over-sized and small sized eggs should
not be selected instead medium sized should be preferred (3) Dark-brown
shelled eggs hatch earlier than light-brown shelled eggs (4) Freshly laid eggs
are preferred for rearing.

2. Incubation and hatching: (Farming methods)

The fertilized hen’s egg undergoes development during incubation and
hatching processes. The fully formed bird emerges out of egg after a hatching
period of 21-22 days. During this period the egg must obtain optimum temperature, humidity and ventilation etc. The maintanance of newly laid eggs in optimum condition till hatching is called incubation.

The incubation is of two types namely natural incubation and
artificial incubation. In the natural incubation method, the eggs are
subjected to the care of mother. Only a limited number of eggs can be
incubated by a mother hen. In artificial incubation the eggs are maintained in
a chamber(incubator) which stimulates the optimum environmental
condition. In artificial incubation more number of eggs can be incubated than
natural incubation.

3. Brooding :- (Farming methods)

Brooding is the care and management of young chickens for
four to six weeks immediately after hatching. Like incubation, brooding also
has the natural and artificial methods. In the former, day-old chickens are left
to the care of mother and in the latter temperature controlled artificial brooder
is used.

Factors involved in brooding :

Temperature :- (Farming methods)

The hatched chicks are kept inside the incubator for about
36 hours and then transfered to artificial brooder. The optimum temperature
is 330c during the first 3 days. During the subsequent weeks of brooding the
temperature is reduced by 30c each week till it reaches 210c.
Ventilation :- Fresh air movement is important for good health and proper
growth of the chicks. Poor ventilation results in the accumulation of carbon
monoxide, ammonia and water vapour which may lead to microbial
infection. (Farming methods)

Floor space :-

Adequate floor space is to be provided for the proper
development of chicken. Minimum of floor space per chickens is
to be provided. Crowding of chickens leads to poor growth and induces
cannibalistic tendencies amongst the birds.
Litter :- The floor of the brood house is layered by beds of hay, rice husk or
saw dust and this is called litter. The litter bed should be 5 to 7.5cm thick
and it must be kept dry. (Farming methods)

Light :-

To keep the brood house free from infectious germs, the brood
house must be well ventilated. Evenly distributed sunlight promotes proper
growth of the birds and formation of vitamin D.

4. Housing of poultry :- (Farming methods)

Open sided poultry is popular in our country. The
primary objective of providing housing to poultry is to protect them from
sun, rain and predators and to provide comfort. Poultry house should be
well ventilated. It should be kept cool in summer and warm in winter. The
floor of the poultry house should be moisture-proof, rat proof, free from
cracks, easily cleanable and durable.

5. Poultry feeding :- (Farming methods)

Feeding of poultry bird is an important part of rearing.
The diet of chickens must contain adequate amount of water, carbohydrates,
proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals. The food stuffs such as maize, barley,
sorghums, wheat, oil cake, rice etc are to be given in standard requirements


Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Livestock and Management

  2. Important cattle breeds and their characteristics

  3. Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds

  4. Dual purpose breeds & Draught breeds

  5. Exotic breeds of cattle

  6. Common diseases and control in Cattle – Contagious diseases

  7. Non-contagious diseases – Cattle

  8. Techniques adopted in cattle breeding

  9. Poultry Breeds

  10. Farming methods

  11. Poultry byproducts

  12. Fish Pond

  13. Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu

  14. Medical Lab Techniques – Stethoscope

  15. Sphygmomanometer

  16. Haemocytometer

  17. Urine Sugar analysis

  18. ECG Electrocardiogram

  19. Computed Tomography CT

  20. Endoscopy (Laproscopy) techniques , Artificial Pacemaker

  21. Autoanalyser

Unit 7. THEORIES OF EVOLUTION Topic List Zoology

  1. Theories Of Evolution Introduction

  2. Lamarck Laws

  3. Neo Lamarckism

  4. Darwinism

  5. Theory of Natural Selection

  6. Objections to Darwinism

  7. Modern concept of Natural Selection

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *