12th Zoology

Endoscopy (Laproscopy) techniques

Endoscopy (Laproscopy) techniques

Endoscopy is a method of examining the interior of a body cavity or
hollow organ (e.g., oesophagus, stomach) using an endoscope, a narrow,
flexible fiber optic instrument that conducts light. Until recently, surgery was
the most traditional of medical practices, employing techniques and
instruments developed more than a century ago, but now patients have a
new choice.

Endoscopy is a minimally invasive approach to sugery of various parts
It accomplishes traditional surgical goals while delivering less pain, faster
recovery, and happier patients.The procedure does not require hospital
admission and acute care and observation may be performed outside the
premises of a hospital. Outpatient procedures performed at hospitals or
ambulatory centers allow the patient to go home or return to work within a
short period after endoscopic diagnosis.

Types of Endoscopy

1. Bronchoscopy: (trachea and lung’s bronchial trees)
2. Colonoscopy: (colon and large intestine)
3. Colpscopy: (vagina and cervix)

4. Cystoscopy: (bladder,urethra, urinary tract, uteral orifices, and
prostate (men)
5. Gastroscopy: (Oesophagus, stomach,and intestine)
6. Laryngoscopy: (larynx or voice box)
7. Proctoscopy: (rectum and sigmoid colon)
8. Thoracoscopy: (pleura, pleural spaces, mediastinum, and
9. Laparoscopy: (stomach, liver and other abdominal organs
including the female reproductive organs, for example, the fallopian
10. Arthroscopy: (joints such as knee)

Artificial Pacemaker

A pacemaker is a small, battery-operated electronic device, which is
inserted under the skin to help the heart to beat regularly and at an appropriate
rate. The purpose of an artificial pacemaker is to stimulate the heart when
either the heart’s natural pacemaker is not fast enough or if there are blocks
in the heart’s electrical conduction system, preventing the propagation of
electrical impulses from the natural pacemaker to the ventricles.

Natural Pacemaker of heart

The sinus node (sinoatrial node), (1.5 cm long, 3mm wide muscle),
situated on the right wall of the right atrium (auricle) where cadiac impulse is
initiated. It is known as the natural pacemaker of mammalian heart,

Componets of an Artificial Pacemaker

A pacemaker generally has two parts, the generator and the leads.
The generator contains the battery and the information to regulate the
heartbeat. The leads are wires that go from the generator through a large
vein to the heart, where the wires are anchored. The leads send the electrical
impulse to the heart to tell it to beat. Most pacemakers run on lithium
batteries. The battery can last for 7-8 years. It will be routinely monitored by health care professional and replaced when necessary. The generators
have become smaller over the years and often weigh less than 30

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Livestock and Management

  2. Important cattle breeds and their characteristics

  3. Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds

  4. Dual purpose breeds & Draught breeds

  5. Exotic breeds of cattle

  6. Common diseases and control in Cattle – Contagious diseases

  7. Non-contagious diseases – Cattle

  8. Techniques adopted in cattle breeding

  9. Poultry Breeds

  10. Farming methods

  11. Poultry byproducts

  12. Fish Pond

  13. Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu

  14. Medical Lab Techniques – Stethoscope

  15. Sphygmomanometer

  16. Haemocytometer

  17. Urine Sugar analysis

  18. ECG Electrocardiogram

  19. Computed Tomography CT

  20. Endoscopy (Laproscopy) techniques , Artificial Pacemaker

  21. Autoanalyser

Unit 7. THEORIES OF EVOLUTION Topic List Zoology

  1. Theories Of Evolution Introduction

  2. Lamarck Laws

  3. Neo Lamarckism

  4. Darwinism

  5. Theory of Natural Selection

  6. Objections to Darwinism

  7. Modern concept of Natural Selection

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