12th Zoology

Urine Sugar analysis

Urine Sugar analysis

The examination of urine (pyhsical, chemical and microscopic) is called
Urinalysis. It provides a valuable picture of the general health pattern of a
patient. Urinalysis is usually done to
(i) find out the state of the kidneys and the urinary tract, and
(ii) gather information about metabolic and systemic abnormalities.
To diagnose metabolic and systemic disorders such as diabetes and
jaundice, tests for glucose, ketone bodies, bilirubin and urobilinogen should
be carried out.

Collection and preservation of Urine

Urine is mainly composed of 95% water, and the rest being made of
urea, uric acid, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphates
etc. It must be collected in a clean, dry container and examined as soon as
possible. For testing glucose, urine collected 2 to 3 hours after food is

Sugar Analysis

Sugars are generally known as reducing substances because they can
reduce a heavy metal, such as copper, from a higher to a lower oxidation
state for example, the reduction of blue cupric sulphate to red cuprous oxide.
Glucose, lactose, fructose, galactoese, pentoses, sucrose etc., are the
reducing substances found in urine. Even though there are many reducing
substances in the urine, estimation of glucose is important, as it indicates the
hyperglycemic condition. (Urine Sugar analysis)

Significance of Glucose

Glucose is present in trace amonts in normal urine. In the kidneys,
glucose is filtered by the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the tubules. Above a
certain limit the tubules cannot reabsorb all the glucose. The surplus glucose
appears in urine and this condition is known as glycosuria. When
glycosuria is detected and hyperglycemia (excess glucose) is estalished, the
chronic disorder, diabetes mellitus is indicated. In this condition as much
as 280 milli moles/ L of glucose can be found in urine. It indicates
disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.

Urine glucose is tested both qualitatively and quantitatively. Benedicts
test is the qualitative test to indicate the presence or absence of sugars.
Different types of quantitative tests, each of them based on some principle
are also employed to quantitate the urine sugar content. Some of them are
Bendicts reagent method, glucose oxidase method ,o- toluidene method etc.
Thin layer chromatography is considered a superior method for
identification of urine sugars. Recently, digital glucometer is in usage for
instantaneous determination of blood glucose levels. (Urine Sugar analysis)

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Livestock and Management

  2. Important cattle breeds and their characteristics

  3. Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds

  4. Dual purpose breeds & Draught breeds

  5. Exotic breeds of cattle

  6. Common diseases and control in Cattle – Contagious diseases

  7. Non-contagious diseases – Cattle

  8. Techniques adopted in cattle breeding

  9. Poultry Breeds

  10. Farming methods

  11. Poultry byproducts

  12. Fish Pond

  13. Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu

  14. Medical Lab Techniques – Stethoscope

  15. Sphygmomanometer

  16. Haemocytometer

  17. Urine Sugar analysis

  18. ECG Electrocardiogram

  19. Computed Tomography CT

  20. Endoscopy (Laproscopy) techniques , Artificial Pacemaker

  21. Autoanalyser

Unit 7. THEORIES OF EVOLUTION Topic List Zoology

  1. Theories Of Evolution Introduction

  2. Lamarck Laws

  3. Neo Lamarckism

  4. Darwinism

  5. Theory of Natural Selection

  6. Objections to Darwinism

  7. Modern concept of Natural Selection

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