12th Zoology

Poultry byproducts

Poultry byproducts

Poultry and poultry products are highly perishable. Hence, due
attention has to be paid to the problems relating to processing, preservation
and marketing of poultry and poultry products for the benefit of producers,
processors and consumers. In a poultry processing unit, raw materials go as
waste in the form of blood, feathers, heads and feet. Hatchery waste
includes infertile eggs, dead embryos, and hatchery unstable chicken. Large
quantity of wet droppings are also available. Processing and using of this
byproducts will not only reduce the cost of poultry production, but also solve
the disposal problem and minimize pollution hazard. A great deal of work
has been done for processing this by-products into feather-meal, poultry
byproducts meal, hatchery byproducts meal, egg shell meal, albumin flake,
dried and poultry manure.

Poultry diseases : These birds are commonly affected by diseases such as
ranikhet, coccidiosis, fowl pox and tick fever.


Pisciculture or fish culture, included under the broad term
‘aquaculture’, can be defined as the ‘farming and husbandry of economically
important fish, under controlled conditions’.
Fish farming is a productive venture. Fishes are highly nutritious
sources of easily digestible proteins (rich in lysine and methionine. They are
essential amino acids); minerals like calcium, phosphorous, iron, sodium,
potassium, magnesium and sulphur; vitamins such as A, D and health
promoting fats. Fish are the source of polyunsaturated fatty acids which are helpful in cholesterol regulation and promoting cardiac health. Fish farming
can help in integrated rural development by generating employment

Fish farming

Fish farming is the raising of fish for personal income or profit. Based
on the environment in which culture is done, fish farming may be categorized
as freshwater fish farming, brackish water fish farming, saltwater or marine
fish farming (mariculture).

Characters of cultivable fish

The following criteria should be considered before selecting a fish for
farming purpose.
· Rate of growth :Fish which grow to a larger size in shorter period are
suitable for culture.Eg. Carps.
· Adaptation to climate: The cultured species of fish should be able to
adapt to the local climatic conditions of the farm.
· Tolerance: The fish should have the capacity to tolerate wide fluctuations
in the physico chemical conditions such as oxygen, salinity, temperature etc
of the water.
· Acceptance of artificial feed : When more number of fish is to be accommodated
in a limited space, there is the need for supplementary feeding on
compounded diets. The fish should show ready preference for these feeds.
· Resistance:It is desirable that the cultured fish is hardy enough to resist the
common diseases and attack of parasites.
· Amiability and compatibility: The fishes proposed to be cultured
together (‘poly culture’) should be able to live together without interfering or
attacking the other.
· Conversion efficiency: The species of fish which give more edible flesh
per unit of food consumed, is preferred.

Consumer’s preference: Food preference of people vary with the
geographic regions. Hence, the species cultured should be easily marketable
locally or to the targeted consumers.

Culturable Fishes of India

Carps, Catfishes, Murrels, Tilapia etc are the main culturable fishes.
Culturable Fishes of India
Indian major carps
Carps (Kendai)
Catla catla (Catla)
Labeo rohita (Rohu)
Cirrhina mrigala (Mrigal)
Exotic (Chinese) carps
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)
Minor Carps
Labeo bata (Bata)
Catfishes ( ‘Keluthi’)
Wallago attu (freshwater shark : ‘Valai’)
Mystus aor (Cat fish)
Clarias batrachus (Magur)
Murrels or snake heads (‘Viral’)
Channa striatus (Striped snake – head)
Oreochromis mossambicus (‘Jilebikkendai’)
Sport fishes (Cold – water fishes)
(i) Trouts (Order : Salmoniformes)
Salmo gairdneri (Rainbow trout)

Marine fishes

Lates calcarifer (Sea bass or cockup, ‘Koduva’)
Mugil cephalus (Grey mullet, ‘Madavai’)
Chanos chanos (Milk fish) besides these food fishes, there is an enormous
potential for the mass culture of a variety of ornamental fishes, which can
bring in high profit, also from overseas markets.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Livestock and Management

  2. Important cattle breeds and their characteristics

  3. Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds

  4. Dual purpose breeds & Draught breeds

  5. Exotic breeds of cattle

  6. Common diseases and control in Cattle – Contagious diseases

  7. Non-contagious diseases – Cattle

  8. Techniques adopted in cattle breeding

  9. Poultry Breeds

  10. Farming methods

  11. Poultry byproducts

  12. Fish Pond

  13. Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu

  14. Medical Lab Techniques – Stethoscope

  15. Sphygmomanometer

  16. Haemocytometer

  17. Urine Sugar analysis

  18. ECG Electrocardiogram

  19. Computed Tomography CT

  20. Endoscopy (Laproscopy) techniques , Artificial Pacemaker

  21. Autoanalyser

Unit 7. THEORIES OF EVOLUTION Topic List Zoology

  1. Theories Of Evolution Introduction

  2. Lamarck Laws

  3. Neo Lamarckism

  4. Darwinism

  5. Theory of Natural Selection

  6. Objections to Darwinism

  7. Modern concept of Natural Selection

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