12th Zoology

Genome sequencing

Genome sequencing

The genome of an organism can be split up into different sized
molecules by a technique called electrophoresis. When DNA of an organism
is subjected to electrophoresis they migrate towards the positive electrode
because DNA is a negatively charged molecule. Smaller DNA fragments
move faster than longer ones. By comparing the distances that the DNA
fragments migrate, their number of bases could be distinguished. The
sequence of bases in the DNA fragments can be identified by chemical /
biochemical methods. Nowadays automated sequencing machines called
sequenators are developed to read hundreds of bases in the DNA. The
DNA sequence data are then stored in a computer accessible form. (Genome sequencing)

DNA library

A DNA library is a collection of DNA fragments, which contains all
the sequences of a single organism.

cDNA library (Complementary DNA)

In cDNA copies of messenger RNA are made by using reverse
transcriptase enzymes. The cDNA libraries are smaller than genomic
libraries and contain only DNA molecules for genes.

In the representation of either the nucleotides or the proteins, IUB/
IUPAC standards are followed. The accepted amino acid codes for proteins
are given below. (Genome sequencing)

A-Alanine B-aspartate / asparagines C-Cystine D-Aspartate
E-Glutamate F-Phenylalanine G-Glycine H-Histidine
I-Isoleucine M-Methionine K-Lysine N-asparagine
P-Proline Q-Glutamine R-Arginine S- Serine
T- Threonine Z-Glutamate/glutamine X-any *-Translation stop
—gap of indeterminate length.

The nucleic acid codes as follows (FASTA format)

A-adenosine B-GTC C-cytidine D-GATG-guanosine
R- Purines (guanine, adenine) T- Thymidine
Y- Pyrimidines (thymidine, cytosine) U-Uridine H – ACT
—gap of indeterminate length.

To specialize in bioinformatics, knowledge of both biology and
information computer technology is required. A biologist needs to know
programming, optimization (code) and cluster analysis, as they are
bioinformatics methods. The biologists should also be familiar with key
algorithms (set of steps). The languages, which help in bioinformatics, are C,
C++, JAVA, FORTRAN, LINUX, UNIX etc. Besides knowledge of
ORACLE database and Sybase are essential. On the mathematical part
knowledge of calculus and statistical techniques are needed. Knowledge of
CGI (common gateway interface) scripts is also needed. With the above, a
bioinformaticist could collect, organize, search and analyze the biological
data viz., the nucleic acids and protein sequences. (Genome sequencing)

Uses of bio informatics

1. It helps to understand gene structure and protein synthesis.
2. It helps to know more about the diseases.
3. It helps to understand more about the fundamental biology and the thread
of life, – the DNA.
4.. It paves the way for the medical and bio engineering applications.
5. It helps to apply the biophysical and biotechnologicl principles to
biological studies. In turn, it will help to design new drugs and new chemical
compounds to be used in health and environmental management respectively.


Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. MODERN GENETICS Introduction and Scope

  2. Human Genetics – Karyotyping

  3. Karyotyping of Human chromosomes

  4. Genetic Engineering

  5. Tools Of Genetic Engineering

  6. Restriction enzymes – Recombinant DNA Technology

  7. DNA – Segmenting / Fragmenting

  8. Genetic Diseases

  9. Human Genome Project (HGP)

  10. Cloning

  11. Transgenic organisms

  12. Gene Therapy

  13. Bioinformatics

  14. Scope of Genetic Engineering – Scope of Bioinformatics

  15. Database

  16. Genome sequencing

  17. Protein structure


    1. Human population and explosion

    2. Population Explosion

    3. Growing Population and Environmental impacts

    4. Global warming – Green house effect

    5. Ozone layer depletion

    6. Prevention and Effect of Ozone depletions

    7. Waste management – Classification

    8. Management of hazardous wastes

    9. Management of non hazardous wastes

    10. Waste water treatment and management

    11. Biodiversity

    12. Conservation of Biodiversity

    13. Characteristics of a Bioreserve

    14. Energy crisis and its environmental impact

    15. Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

    16. Environmental impacts of Power Sources

    17. Poverty and environment

    18. Fresh water crisis and management

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