12th Zoology

Human Genome Project (HGP)

Human Genome Project (HGP)

Human genome project involves the human genome programmes to
understand the genetic composition and genetic instruction that make up a human. The human genome is nothing but the DNA that resides in every
human cell. The location and composition of 30,000 (thirty thousand) genes
in human have been identified by sequencing the genome. It is known that the
genes carry the information for the synthesis of various proteins. These proteins
take up different profiles such as enzymes, hormones and antigens, which
are responsible for various physiological and biochemical functions. The
completion of the human genome project, by determining the DNA
sequence of all the 23 pairs of chromosomes is a turning point and a break
through in biology and medicine.

Human gene bank / genome database

Human gene bank or the genome database is the collection of
sequenced genes and cataloging of them for future use. They represent the
fundamental data.


Human genome analysis involves the analysis of proteins. Analysing
different proteins and locating them in cells and identifying their respective
genes, which encode them in the cells, represent the science of Proteomics.
For identifying the proteins, the cells, mRNAs are probed. Researchers have
identified about 60000 (Sixty thousand) different m-RNAs in human beings.
From the mRNAs the respective genes/DNA are traced. The above said
DNA is known as cDNA (Complementary DNA).

In the human genome project many disease related genes have been
mapped to specific chromosomal regions.

Protein coding genes

In the human genome project, proteins of different families which are
involved in development and cellular processes such as neuronal
function, homeostasis, immune function and cytoskeletal complexity have been

Significance and Benefits of HGP

1. The sequence of human genome will enable geneticists to cure the killer
diseases like cancer.
2. It may enable us to understand more about the diseases and thereby to
design drugs.
3. HGP aids in diagnosis of defective genes that cause disease.
4. As HGP may serve as a tool to Eugenical concept, scientists can
create superior, disease free human beings in future.
5. It helps in somatic cell gene therapy and germ line gene therapy.


Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. MODERN GENETICS Introduction and Scope

  2. Human Genetics – Karyotyping

  3. Karyotyping of Human chromosomes

  4. Genetic Engineering

  5. Tools Of Genetic Engineering

  6. Restriction enzymes – Recombinant DNA Technology

  7. DNA – Segmenting / Fragmenting

  8. Genetic Diseases

  9. Human Genome Project (HGP)

  10. Cloning

  11. Transgenic organisms

  12. Gene Therapy

  13. Bioinformatics

  14. Scope of Genetic Engineering – Scope of Bioinformatics

  15. Database

  16. Genome sequencing

  17. Protein structure


    1. Human population and explosion

    2. Population Explosion

    3. Growing Population and Environmental impacts

    4. Global warming – Green house effect

    5. Ozone layer depletion

    6. Prevention and Effect of Ozone depletions

    7. Waste management – Classification

    8. Management of hazardous wastes

    9. Management of non hazardous wastes

    10. Waste water treatment and management

    11. Biodiversity

    12. Conservation of Biodiversity

    13. Characteristics of a Bioreserve

    14. Energy crisis and its environmental impact

    15. Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

    16. Environmental impacts of Power Sources

    17. Poverty and environment

    18. Fresh water crisis and management

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