12th Zoology


Definition of Database


‘Creating’ database means a coherent collection of data with
inherent meaning, used for future application. Database is a general
repository of voluminous information or records to be processed by a

Databases are broadly classified as generalized databases and
specialized databases. Structural organisation of DNA, protein, carbohydrates are included under generalized databases. Databases of
Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), Genome Survey Sequences (GSS), Single
Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) sequence Tagged sites (STSs). RNA
databases are included under specialized data bases.
Generalized databases contain sequence database and structure

a. Sequence databases are the sequence records of either nucleotides
or amino acids. The former is the nucleic acid databases and the latter are
the protein sequence databases.
b. Structure databases are the individual records of macromolecular
structures. The nucleic acid databases are again classified into primary
databases and secondary databases.

Primary databases contain the data in their original form taken as
such from the source eg., Genebank (NCBI/USA) Protein, SWISS-PROT
(Switzerland), Protein 3D structure etc.
Secondary databases also called as value added databases contain
annotated data and information eg., OMIN – Online Mendelian Inheritance
in Man. GDB – Genome Database – Human.

Nucleic acid sequence databases

European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) ; National
Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and DNA data bank of Japan
(DDBJ) are the three premier institutes considered as the authorities in the
nucleotide sequence databases. They can be reached at (for EMBL) (NCBI) (DDBJ)

Protein sequence databases

The protein sequence databases elucidate the high level
annotations such as the description of the protein functions ; their domain
structure (configuration), amino acid sequence, post-translational modifications, variants etc. SWISS-PROT groups at SIB (Swiss Institute of
Bioinformatics) and EBI (European Bioinformatics Institue) have
developed the protein sequence databases. SWISS-PROT is revealed at


Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. MODERN GENETICS Introduction and Scope

  2. Human Genetics – Karyotyping

  3. Karyotyping of Human chromosomes

  4. Genetic Engineering

  5. Tools Of Genetic Engineering

  6. Restriction enzymes – Recombinant DNA Technology

  7. DNA – Segmenting / Fragmenting

  8. Genetic Diseases

  9. Human Genome Project (HGP)

  10. Cloning

  11. Transgenic organisms

  12. Gene Therapy

  13. Bioinformatics

  14. Scope of Genetic Engineering – Scope of Bioinformatics

  15. Database

  16. Genome sequencing

  17. Protein structure


    1. Human population and explosion

    2. Population Explosion

    3. Growing Population and Environmental impacts

    4. Global warming – Green house effect

    5. Ozone layer depletion

    6. Prevention and Effect of Ozone depletions

    7. Waste management – Classification

    8. Management of hazardous wastes

    9. Management of non hazardous wastes

    10. Waste water treatment and management

    11. Biodiversity

    12. Conservation of Biodiversity

    13. Characteristics of a Bioreserve

    14. Energy crisis and its environmental impact

    15. Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

    16. Environmental impacts of Power Sources

    17. Poverty and environment

    18. Fresh water crisis and management

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