12th Zoology

Karyotyping of Human chromosomes

Karyotyping of Human chromosomes

The 23 pairs of chromosomes in human are classified into seven
groups viz, A-G based on position of centromere.

Group A : This group includes the largest chromosomes 1,2 and 3. These
are metacentric with centromere found in center with two equal arms.

Group B : This group represents chromosomes 4 and 5 which are
submetacentric with two unequal arms. (Karyotyping of Human chromosomes)

Group C : This is the largest group containing chromosomes 6,7,8,9,10,11,12
and X. These are of medium size and submetacentric. The X chromosome
resembles the chromosome 6 in this group.

GroupD : These are medium sized chromosomes with nearly
(acrocentric) terminal centromeres. The chromosomes 13,14 and 15 are kept
in this group.

Group E : It consists of chromosomes 16,17 and 18. They are shorter and
meta or submetacentric.

Group F : Shorter metacentric chromosomes 19 and 20 represent this group.

Group G : This group comprises the very short acrocentric chromosomes
21, 22 and Y belong to this category. (Karyotyping of Human chromosomes)

Uses : (Karyotyping of Human chromosomes)

1. Karyotyping helps to identify the sex of individuals through amniocentesis.
2. Genetic diseases in human beings can be detected by this
technique. If a disease is detected, the medical councelling for termination of
pregnancy and abortion of such foetus can be done.
3. By characterizing the normal karyotype, the chromosomal
abnormalities such as deletion, duplication, translocation, non-disjunctions
and the consequent aneuploids could be detected. (Karyotyping of Human chromosomes)


Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. MODERN GENETICS Introduction and Scope

  2. Human Genetics – Karyotyping

  3. Karyotyping of Human chromosomes

  4. Genetic Engineering

  5. Tools Of Genetic Engineering

  6. Restriction enzymes – Recombinant DNA Technology

  7. DNA – Segmenting / Fragmenting

  8. Genetic Diseases

  9. Human Genome Project (HGP)

  10. Cloning

  11. Transgenic organisms

  12. Gene Therapy

  13. Bioinformatics

  14. Scope of Genetic Engineering – Scope of Bioinformatics

  15. Database

  16. Genome sequencing

  17. Protein structure


    1. Human population and explosion

    2. Population Explosion

    3. Growing Population and Environmental impacts

    4. Global warming – Green house effect

    5. Ozone layer depletion

    6. Prevention and Effect of Ozone depletions

    7. Waste management – Classification

    8. Management of hazardous wastes

    9. Management of non hazardous wastes

    10. Waste water treatment and management

    11. Biodiversity

    12. Conservation of Biodiversity

    13. Characteristics of a Bioreserve

    14. Energy crisis and its environmental impact

    15. Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

    16. Environmental impacts of Power Sources

    17. Poverty and environment

    18. Fresh water crisis and management

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