12th Zoology



Definition :

Bioinformatics deals with the creation and maintenance of
databases of biological information such as the nucleic acid, gene sequences
and protein sequences. It has its own applications in gene therapy,
diagnostics, drug designing, crop improvement, biochemical processes etc.
It involves the data analysis or creation of electronic databases on genomes
and protein molecules.

History of Bioinformatics

From the beginning of the post Mendelian’s period, genetic principles
propounded by various geneticists have revealed the functional behaviour of discrete hereditary particles called the genes, in the expression of various
morphological (phenotypical) and biochemical traits of organisms. During
the last three decades, the advancement in molecular biology, the invention
of computers, ultra developments in scientific methodologies and introduction
of instrumentation at nano level, have paved the way for the origin of

The preliminary discoveries such as the amino acid sequence of
bovine insulin (1950s), nucleic acid sequence of yeast alaine tRNA with 77
bases (1960s); X-ray crystallographic structure of protein, formed the basis
and original databases for data entries and file making. With further
advancements made in computational methods , empolying rapid search
algorithms (BLAST) with hundreds of command options and input formats,
the birth of bioinformatical science has been made.

Applications of Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is a synergistic study of both biotechnology and
information technology. In biotechnology living organisms of micro level and
macro level organizations are employed, and manipulated towards
harvesting beneficial products to human. In recent years Biotechnology is
turning into an industrial science through genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering helps the scientists to incorporate a single gene
into an organism, and synthesize the desirable product without affecting other
genes and their functions. In this way the biological systems or the microbial
systems are manipulated


Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. MODERN GENETICS Introduction and Scope

  2. Human Genetics – Karyotyping

  3. Karyotyping of Human chromosomes

  4. Genetic Engineering

  5. Tools Of Genetic Engineering

  6. Restriction enzymes – Recombinant DNA Technology

  7. DNA – Segmenting / Fragmenting

  8. Genetic Diseases

  9. Human Genome Project (HGP)

  10. Cloning

  11. Transgenic organisms

  12. Gene Therapy

  13. Bioinformatics

  14. Scope of Genetic Engineering – Scope of Bioinformatics

  15. Database

  16. Genome sequencing

  17. Protein structure


    1. Human population and explosion

    2. Population Explosion

    3. Growing Population and Environmental impacts

    4. Global warming – Green house effect

    5. Ozone layer depletion

    6. Prevention and Effect of Ozone depletions

    7. Waste management – Classification

    8. Management of hazardous wastes

    9. Management of non hazardous wastes

    10. Waste water treatment and management

    11. Biodiversity

    12. Conservation of Biodiversity

    13. Characteristics of a Bioreserve

    14. Energy crisis and its environmental impact

    15. Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

    16. Environmental impacts of Power Sources

    17. Poverty and environment

    18. Fresh water crisis and management

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