12th Zoology

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology)

All living organisms are endowed with specific genetic
information. With advancement that progressed in genetical science, many aspects of gene functions became obvious. The molecular functioning of genes revealed the central dogma that DNA in a eukaryotic cell undergoes transcription to synthesize RNA and the latter undergoes translation to
produce protein (polypeptide).

Even before the modern aspects of molecular genetics are discovered, the existence of mobile genetic elements (Transposons) were visualized by the geneticist Barbara Meclintock in her work on maize plant Zea mays in 1965.

Genetic engineering deals with the manipulation of genes
according to human will. A gene of known function can be transferred from
its normal location into an entirely different cell or organism, via a suitable
carrier or vector.

The carrier may be a plasmid DNA segment of a bacterium or a virus. The gene transferred likewise starts functioning to synthesize the particular protein in the new environment. Thus, the fact that, a gene can function irrespective of its environment formed the basis for genetic engineering.


Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. MODERN GENETICS Introduction and Scope

  2. Human Genetics – Karyotyping

  3. Karyotyping of Human chromosomes

  4. Genetic Engineering

  5. Tools Of Genetic Engineering

  6. Restriction enzymes – Recombinant DNA Technology

  7. DNA – Segmenting / Fragmenting

  8. Genetic Diseases

  9. Human Genome Project (HGP)

  10. Cloning

  11. Transgenic organisms

  12. Gene Therapy

  13. Bioinformatics

  14. Scope of Genetic Engineering – Scope of Bioinformatics

  15. Database

  16. Genome sequencing

  17. Protein structure


    1. Human population and explosion

    2. Population Explosion

    3. Growing Population and Environmental impacts

    4. Global warming – Green house effect

    5. Ozone layer depletion

    6. Prevention and Effect of Ozone depletions

    7. Waste management – Classification

    8. Management of hazardous wastes

    9. Management of non hazardous wastes

    10. Waste water treatment and management

    11. Biodiversity

    12. Conservation of Biodiversity

    13. Characteristics of a Bioreserve

    14. Energy crisis and its environmental impact

    15. Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis

    16. Environmental impacts of Power Sources

    17. Poverty and environment

    18. Fresh water crisis and management

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