12th Zoology

Skin – Functions of skin


The skin is a major organ of the body forming 8% of its total mass
and having an area between 1.1-2.2m2. It is the major interface between the
body and the environment and covers the entire surface. It is continuous with
mucosae at the various orifices and with lining tissue of organs like eyes and

Various structures including sebaceous glands, sweat glands, hair
follicles and nails are formed by modifications of epidermis. Sebaceous glands
secrete an oily substance called sebum and open on the sides of the hair
follicles. Sweat glands are of two types, Merocrine and Apocrine. Merocrine
glands are found throughout the body opening on the surface and secreting a
clear watery fluid. Apocrine glands are found in the regions like axilla, areola,
pubis, scrotum and perianal regions. Their ducts may open on the surface or
into the hair follicle.

Dermis is made up of connective tissue consisting of matrix in which is
embedded elastic and collagen fibres to give strength and elasticity. It also
provides a compartment for blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves and cells
associated with immunity. Receptors for the sensations such as touch, pain,
pressure, warmth, cold and vibration senses are also found in the skin.
Circulation through the skin serves two major functions nutrition and
conduction of heat to the environment.

Functions of skin

1. Skin forms an effective barrier against infection by microbes.
2. It prevents dehydration and provides defense against chemical, osmotic,
thermal and photic damage.
3. It limits and regulates heat loss.
4. It provides a major sensory surface with a range of receptors.
5. It has limited excretory and absorptive functions.
6. Skin also helps in the formation of vitamin D.
7. Its keratinization and high friction coefficient gives the skin a
characteristic texture and helps in movement and handling of various

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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