12th Zoology

Hernia and Types


Hernia is commonly called “ruptures”. This occurs at a weaker
region in the abdominal muscle.

Due to increased pressure in the abdomen, the muscles become streched at the weak point, the pressure may be due to lifting heavy weights, continuously.

Due to hernia, a visible bulge can develop. It will contain fatty tissues or part of the intestine. Abdominal hernias are common in men having heavy manual job.
In hernia, a section of intestine may become twisted and get traped
inside the bulge.

The blood supply may be cut off. This is known as strangulated hernia. If it causes severe pain immediate surgery is needed. Hernia can occur in other areas of the body.

Types of Hernia

1. Inguinial Hernia – a portion of the intestine pushes through inguinial
canal. This region is the weak spot.

2. Femoral Hernia – It occurs in the part of the groin where the femoral
vein and artery pass from the lower abdomen to the thigh, women who are
over weight (or) who have several pregnancies may be affected.

3. Umbilical Hernia – It develops in babies, behind the navel due to
weakness in the abdominal wall.
Hernia repair – For hernia often a simple surgery is needed. It is done by
using local or general anaesthesia.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  16. Gall Stones

  17. Hepatitis

  18. Fractures – Types of fractures

  19. Mechanism of fracture

  20. Dislocation of joints

  21. Arthiritis

  22. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  23. Muscles

  24. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  25. Types of muscle contraction

  26. Myasthenia Gravis

  27. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  28. Mechanism of Breathing

  29. Regulation of Respiration

  30. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  31. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  32. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  33. Cardiac Cycle

  34. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  35. Myocardial infarction

  36. Angina pectoris

  37. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  38. Atherosclerosis

  39. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  40. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  41. Blood Pressure

  42. Heart transplantation

  43. Pulse rate

  44. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  45. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  46. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  47. Thrombosis

  48. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  49. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  50. Memory

  51. Sleep – Types of sleep

  52. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  53. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  54. Conditioned reflex

  55. Electroencephalography EEG

  56. Right and Left brain concept

  57. Spinal cord functioning

  58. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  59. Hypothalamus

  60. Pituitary gland – hormone

  61. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  62. Thyroid gland

  63. Parathyroid Gland

  64. Pancreas

  65. Adrenal gland

  66. Gonads

  67. Receptor Organs – Eye

  68. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  69. Errors of refraction

  70. Optometry – Retinopathy

  71. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  72. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  73. Ear

  74. Mechanism of hearing

  75. Defects of the ear

  76. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  77. Skin and functions of skin

  78. Melanin functions

  79. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  80. Dermatitis

  81. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  82. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  83. Mechanism of urine formation

  84. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  85. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  86. Diabetes mellitus

  87. Functioning of male reproductive system

  88. Functioning of female reproductive system

  89. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  90. Fertilization

  91. Birth control

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