12th Zoology

Functioning of female reproductive system

Functioning of female reproductive system

The central role of the female reproductive system is carried out by the ovaries. They produce sex cells called ova or eggs containing genetic material.

By a process of fertilization an egg derives the potentiality to develop into a foetus. The ovaries also secrete female sex hormones that control sexual development and the menstrual cycle

Endocrine function of Ovary (Female Sex Hormones)

The ovaries produce the female sex hormones oestrogen and
progesterone. The secretion of these hormones are controlled by follicle – stimulating hormone and lutenizing hormone which are produced by pituitary gland.Female sex hormones control sexual development at puberty, the menstrual cycle and fertility.

Oestrogens (Functioning of female reproductive system)

These are steroidal hormones secreted by the theca interna of the ovum, cells of graffian follicle, corpus luteum and placenta. Oestrogen hormone controls the development of accessory sex organ and secondary sexual characters. It regulates menstrual cycle. Oestrogen promotes growth of ovarian follicles. Further it causes the growth of the breasts and formation of melanin pigments.

Progesterone is the principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum. It prepares the uterus for implantation of the fertilized ovum.It helps in the formation of placenta and for maintaining pregnancy.

Further during preguancy it inhibits contraction of uterus. It also suppresses ovulation and menstruation in pregnancy.

Structure of a mature ovum (Functioning of female reproductive system)

Human ovum is small and contains no yolk (Alecithal egg) It is more than 100mm in diameter At the time of ovulation, the ovum is surrounded by a striated membrane called zona radiata and later it is replaced by an unstriated membrane Zona pellucida (Primary egg membrane). The growing oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells.

Some of the follicular cells of the ovary are found outside the zona pellucida and are termed as Corona radiata (Secondary egg membrane) which is peeled off when the oocyte passes down the oviduct. The follicles and the developing oocyte
together constitute Graafian follicle. The whole surface of the graafian follicle is supported by theca interna and theca externa.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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