12th Zoology

Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration


Respiration is a process by which oxygen reaches the body cells and
is utilized by them in metabolism and carbon-di-oxide formed as a waste
product gets eliminated. The real function of respiration is to provide the
energy needed by body cells. Cells obtain energy by metabolizing glucose
utilising oxygen.

Hence they require a constant supply of oxygen. In
addition, the waste products of the metabolic process, namely
carbon-di-oxide must be carried away from the cells. The transport of
oxygen and carbon-di-oxide between lungs and body cells takes place by an
efficient cardio-vascular system.

Process of pulmonary respiration

Respiration includes several processes which are listed below
(i).ventilation is the breathing in of air with more oxygen into the lungs
(inspiration). It is followed by expulsion of air with more of carbon-di-oxide
(ii). Diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood inside
surrounding capillaries.
(iii). Transport of oxygen by the blood to the heart through the
pulmonary vein.
(iv). Distribution of oxygen by various arteries and their
capillary network to all cells of the body. As the blood passes through tissue
capillaries, it gives up oxygen (and nutrients such as glucose) to the body,
tissues and picks up the waste products of cellular respiration (Carbon-dioxide
and water).
(v). Exchange of the oxygen and carbon-di-oxide between the blood and
body cells. With in body cells glucose and oxygen take part in a complex
series of reactions which provide energy to power the cells. During this
cellular repiration glucose is converted to carbon-di-oxide and water.
(Enzymatic oxidation).

(vi). Transporting blood with carbon-di-oxide. Carbon-di-oxide is carried
back in the blood to the heart then to the lungs where it diffuses into the
alveoli and is breathed out of the body (External respiration).
(vii) Exchanging of carbon-di-oxide with oxygen at the alveolar surface.
(viii) Expiration of air with carbon-di-oxide from the lungs.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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