12th Zoology

Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

Renal Failure

The reduction in the ability of the kidneys to filter waste products
from the blood and excrete them in the urine is called as renal failure. The
regulation of the water balance, salt balance and control of blood pressure
are impaired due to kidney failure. The kidney failure also leads to uraemia
(a built up of urea and waste products) and other chemical disturbances in
the blood and tissues. This leads to various disorders and symptoms.

Kidney failure can be acute (of sudden onset) or chronic
(developing more gradually). In acute Kidney failure kidney function returns
to normal once the causes have been discovered and treated. In chronic
kidney failure the kidney function does not revive since it is caused by poor
supply (flow) of blood, major illness, heart attack or pancreatitis. This
damages the kidney tissue and its function. Heart transplantation is suggested
for chronic type of failure.


Dialysis involves a technique used for removing waste products from
the blood and excess fluid from the body as a treatment for kidney failure.

Why it is done?

The kidneys filter approximately 1500 liters of blood daily. From this
volume of blood, the kidney reabsorbs important elements such as sodium,
potassium, calcium, amino acids, glucose and water. In people whose
kidney have been damaged this process may fail either suddenly (in acute
kidney failure) or gradually in chronic renal failure. Waste starts to
accumulate in the blood, with harmful, sometimes even life threatening
effects. In severe cases, the function must be taken over by artificial means
of dialysis. Dialysis is called artificial kidney.

Kidney Machines

A kidney machine is a mechanical device through which a patient’s
blood passes. The blood leaves the body usually from an artery in the
forearm and return to a nearby vein. Inside the machine the blood flows
over or between membranes containing dissolved fluid (Dialysing fluid) and
salt in concentrations normally found in blood. Solid constituents in the blood in excess of normal concentrations diffuse across the membrane into the
dialyzing fluid. In this way waste like urea which accumulate in the body are
extracted. Blood cells and protein remain in the blood. The process is called
Two kinds of dialysis are performed in clinical medicine. They are
haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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