12th Zoology

Mechanism of fracture

Mechanism of fracture

A fracture can be caused either by direct violence or indirect
violence. Direct violence causes a fracture at the site of impact of the force.
Indirect violence fracture is one that is transmitted to a bone away from the
site of impact and producing the fracture there.

Torsion produces spiral or oblique fracture. It is important to understand the mechanism of fracture as it helps in deciding the manoeuvres for reducing further damages. When a man falls down from a building or from a coconut tree he sustains a fracture on bones and the spine. The fracture of bone is caused by direct violence and the fracture spine is caused by indirect violence.

Healing of Bones in fracture

It involves three phases, viz.,
1. Inflammatory phase 2. Reparative phase and 3. Remodelling phase.

1. Inflammatory Phase

When a fracture occurs, at the site of fracture the blood vessels get broken and the blood fills up the gap of the bone. This blood clots to form a haematoma. This process takes place in one to two days. The soft tissue of this region undergoes inflammation.

2. Repairative Phase

A stage of callus is formed. It bridges the gap and establishes contact between the ends of fractured bone. The callus is nothing but granulation of tissues around the site of fracture. This phase takes place about eight to twelve weeks.(Fig. 1.7)

3. Remodelling phase

Once the fracture is bridged by the callus tissue, the site of fracture undergoes remodelling by muscular and weight bearing stresses and slight deformity gets corrected by moulding. This remodelling takes up to one year.

Physiotherapy and rehabilitation

Physiotherapy is the therapaeutic exercise to make the limbs work
normally. Therapaeutic exercise is carried out by physiotherapists under the supervision of orthopaedic surgeon. The commom problem at the end of
fracture treatment is the wasting of muscles and stiffness of joints. These
two problems can be rectified by physiotherapy, by gradual exercises.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *