12th Zoology

Blood Pressure – Intensive of hypertension, Causes, Preventive measures

Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the force exerted by the flow of blood against the
walls of the main arteries while flowing through them. Blood pressure rises
or falls as the heart responds to the varying demands made by the body
during different activities such as exercise, stress and sleep.
Two types of pressure are measured.

Systolic (the highest) is the pressure created, by the ventricular muscle and the elastic recoil of the aorta (main vessel leaving the heart) as the blood flows through it. Diastolic pressure (the lowest) is recorded during relaxation of the ventricles between beats. It reflects the resistance of all the small arteries in the body and the load against which the heart must work. The pressure wave transmitted along the arteries with each heart beat is felt as the pulse.

Blood pressure is measured using a sphygmomanometer. A healthy
adult has a blood pressure reading of about 120/80 mm Hg (120 mm.Hg –
systolic and 80 mm Hg – diastolic). This often rises normally with age to
about 130/90 at 60. Abnormally high blood pressure is known as hyper tension.
Hyper tension is defined as the “Systolic pressure equal to or greater
than 160 mm Hg and (or) the diastolic pressure equal to or greater than 95
mm Hg”. Abnormally low pressure is termed hypotension.

Intensive of hypertension

Hyper tension puts a strain on the heart and blood vessels. Apart
from increasing the risk of having a stroke or developing heart failure or
coronary artery disease, high blood pressure may cause kidney damage and
retinopathy (damage to the retina at the back of the eye).


Hypertension is linked with obesity and in some people to a high
intake of salt, alcohol, smoking appears to aggravate the effects of

Preventive measures

Alcohol consumption and smoking should be avoided. Obese persons should make an attempt to reduce weight through restriction of food intake and try regular exercise. The dietary intake of animal fat (milk, cream, cheese fatty meat and eggs) should be reduced. A restricted intake of salt is recommended.

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Human Physiology Introduction

  2. Nutrition

  3. Carbohydrates Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones

  4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

  5. Lipids

  6. Vitamins – Functions Of Vitamins

  7. Deficiency of Vitamin

  8. Minerals – Water – Role of water

  9. Balanced diet

  10. Obesity

  11. Digestive System

  12. Dental Caries (Tooth decay)

  13. Root Canal Treatment

  14. Peptic ulcer

  15. Hernia and Types

  16. Appendicitis (Appendix)

  17. Gall Stones

  18. Hepatitis

  19. Fractures – Types of fractures

  20. Mechanism of fracture

  21. Dislocation of joints

  22. Arthiritis

  23. Rickets and Osteomalacia – Orthopedics

  24. Muscles

  25. Mechanism of muscle contraction

  26. Types of muscle contraction

  27. Myasthenia Gravis

  28. Respiration – Process of pulmonary respiration

  29. Mechanism of Breathing

  30. Regulation of Respiration

  31. Pneumonia Tuberculosis Symptoms Treatment

  32. Bronchitis – Acute bronchitis, Chronic Bronchitis Causes

  33. Circulatory System – Functioning of Human heart

  34. Cardiac Cycle

  35. Coronary blood vessel and its significance

  36. Myocardial infarction

  37. Angina pectoris

  38. Angiogram – Angioplasty

  39. Atherosclerosis

  40. Heart block Echo cardiography Heart Valves

  41. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD), ICCU – (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)

  42. Blood Pressure

  43. Heart transplantation

  44. Pulse rate

  45. Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

  46. Blood – Composition of plasma – Blood cells

  47. Clotting of Blood or Haemostasis

  48. Thrombosis

  49. Nervous system Co-ordination systems

  50. The Brain – Fore Brain, Midbrain, Hindbrain

  51. Memory

  52. Sleep – Types of sleep

  53. Stroke – Brain haemorrhage

  54. Alzheimer – Meningitis (Brain fever)

  55. Conditioned reflex

  56. Electroencephalography EEG

  57. Right and Left brain concept

  58. Spinal cord functioning

  59. Chemical co-ordination – Functions of Endocrine glands

  60. Hypothalamus

  61. Pituitary gland – hormone

  62. Hormones of Neurohypophysis – vasopressin

  63. Thyroid gland

  64. Parathyroid Gland

  65. Pancreas

  66. Adrenal gland

  67. Gonads

  68. Receptor Organs – Eye

  69. Photochemistry of Retinal visual Pigments

  70. Errors of refraction

  71. Optometry – Retinopathy

  72. Cataract – Lens Replacement – Glaucoma – Nyctalopia

  73. Eye Infections and Eye Care

  74. Ear

  75. Mechanism of hearing

  76. Defects of the ear

  77. Hearing Aid – Noise pollution

  78. Skin and functions of skin

  79. Melanin functions

  80. Effects of solar radiation / UV radiation – Skin grafting

  81. Dermatitis

  82. Tongue – Mechanism of Stimulation

  83. Excretion Ureotelism Nephron

  84. Mechanism of urine formation

  85. Renal Failure, Dialysis, Kidney Machines

  86. Kidney stone – Kidney transplantation

  87. Diabetes mellitus

  88. Functioning of male reproductive system

  89. Functioning of female reproductive system

  90. Ovulation and fate of the ovum – Menstrual cycle

  91. Fertilization

  92. Birth control

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