Bio – war
Nowadays, microbes are misused as biological weapons. For instance, a single gram of the most virulent strains of weaponized. Smallpox or anthrax could contain 250 million infectious doses.
Under ideal dispersal conditions, about half the people of the entire. World when exposed to these germs could become ill and one-third might die.
Even from a very long period, pathogens causing some of the deadliest diseases in men are being used as biological weapons. More than 2,000 years ago, Scythian archers used their arrow heads. Which were dipped in rotting corpses in order to cause panic amongst people.
The tips of arrowhead caused infections. During World war II, papar bags filled with plague infested fleas were employed as biological weapons to kill thousands of people. At that time, well equipped and expensive laboratories were established to mass produce biological weapons.
At present, each and every nation is facing the threat from biological weapons. People affected by the biological war have to suffer throughout their life.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in biological warfare
Using Molecular biology techniques, new combinations of genes were
attempted to create genetically modified organisms (GMO).
Some of the most lethal agents known to have been tested in biological warfare are anthrax, plague, smallpox and Ebola viruses with viral diseases.
People were aware of the reality that a small group of fanatical terrorists could easily contaminate the country’s air, water and food with lethal pathogens or biological toxins.
Thus biological warfare introduces issues of pathogenicity, toxicity,
routes of exposure, safety measures and the movement, distribution and persistence of dangerous biological materials in our environment.
In biological warfare strategies, the genetically engineered microorganisms are made to spread into the enemy’s territorial environment, with unpredictable and perhaps catastrophic consequences.
The released dangerous microorganisms ‘upset the balance of nature’.
Plant physiology – photosynthesis and its significance
BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE Introduction & Food production
Aspects of plant breeding and Types
Hybridization in plant breeding
Polyploid breeding, Mutation breeding, Breeding for disease resistance
Genetic engineering, Improved varieties, Role of biofertilizers
Green manuring, Mycorrhiza as biofertilizer
Crop diseases and their control, Rice – Oryza sativa
Groundnut or peanut – Arachis hypogea
Citrus canker, Tungro disease of rice
Biocontrol of insect pests Bacterial pesticides
Biopiracy, Bioresources, Biomolecules, Biopatent, Biotechnology
Medicinal plants including microbes
Commonly Available Medicinal Plants
Economic importance of Food plant Rice
Oil plant Groundnut Economic importance
Fibre plant – Cotton Economic importance
Timber yielding plant Teak Economic importance