Benefits from biofertilizers
1. Biofertilizers are easy to produce in abundance and are available
at low cost to the marginal farmers.
2. It increases soil fertility without causing any damage to the soil.
3. Application of biofertilizers increases yield upto 45 per cent and
the left over biofertilizers in the soil increases yield as long as the
biofertilizer remains in the soil up to 3 to 4 years.
4. Azolla, which is a biofertilizer amends the soil with organic matter.
Cyanobacteria in particular secrete growth promoting hormones
like indole 3-acetic acid, indole butyric acid, naphthalene acetic
acid, aminoacids, protein and vitamins to soil.
5. Cyanobacteria grow well both in acidic as well as in alkaline soils.
Since, cyanobacteria are potent neutralizers, they help in the
neutralization of soil. The process of converting untenable, fallow
land to cultivable soil is termed as soil reclamation. Blue green
algae play a vital role in this conversion.
6. Symbiotic nitrogen fixing Rhizobium is a biofertilizer. It adds 50
to 150 Kg of nitrogen to soil per hectare. Azatobacter and
Azospirillum secrete antibiotics which act as biopesticides.
7. Ectotrophic mycorrhiza, which acts as a biofertilizer, increases
the surface area of the roots of host plants, so that more absorption
of nutrients by the roots is made possible.
Plant physiology – photosynthesis and its significance
BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE Introduction & Food production
Aspects of plant breeding and Types
Hybridization in plant breeding
Polyploid breeding, Mutation breeding, Breeding for disease resistance
Genetic engineering, Improved varieties, Role of biofertilizers
Green manuring, Mycorrhiza as biofertilizer
Crop diseases and their control, Rice – Oryza sativa
Groundnut or peanut – Arachis hypogea
Citrus canker, Tungro disease of rice
Biocontrol of insect pests Bacterial pesticides
Bio war, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in biological warfare
Biopiracy, Bioresources, Biomolecules, Biopatent, Biotechnology
Medicinal plants including microbes
Commonly Available Medicinal Plants
Economic importance of Food plant Rice
Oil plant Groundnut Economic importance
Fibre plant – Cotton Economic importance
Timber yielding plant Teak Economic importance