12th botany neet school

Types of chromosomes with special types

Types of chromosomes

Types of chromosomes is explained in here with audio explanation.

Types of chromosomes, the chromosomes are classified into different types based on shape and position of the centromere.

According to the position of centromere,the eukaryotic chromosomes may be rod shaped (telocentric and acrocentric), L-shaped (sub-metacentric) and V-shaped (metacentric).

There are two types of chromosomes based on their function. They are autosomes and sex chromosomes.
four morphogenic type of chromosomes


Autosomes are types of chromosomes, they are present in all the cells of the organisms. They control the somatic characteristics of an organism.

In the human diploid cell, 44 chromosomes are autosomes whereas the rest two are sex chromosomes.

Sex chromosomes

Sex chromosomes are types of chromosomes, In the diploid cells of animals and certain plants, one or more special chromosomes are different from the autosomes in their morphological structures and behaviour.

These chromosomes are involved in the determination of sex. They are called sex chromosomes. In human being, male has XY and female XX chromosomes.

Unusual chromosomes

These chromosomes are abnormal chromosomes. They differ from the basic structure of normal chromosomes.

Eg. B-chromosomes and Double minutes. B-chromosomes are also called supernumerary and accessory chromosomes.

They are additional chromosomes found in some individuals in a population. eg. maize.

They are common in plants and they reduce viability.

Double minutes are unstable chromosome like structures. They have no centromere and formal telomeres.

They occur in cancer cells which show resistance against drugs.

Special types of chromosomes

Special types of chromosomes are in Eukaryotic organisms certain chromosomes are found only in certain special tissues and are not seen in other tissues.

These chromosomes are larger in size and are called giant chromosomes. In certain plants, they are found in the suspensors of the embryo.

There are two types of giant chromosomes – polytene chromosome and lamp brush chromosome.

Polytene chromosomes were observed by C.G. Balbiani in 1881 in the salivary glands of Drosophila.

The characteristic feature of polytene

special types of chromosomes

chromosome is that along the length of the chromosome there is a series of dark bands alternate with clear zones called inter bands.

The polytene chromosome has extremely large puff called Balbiani ring. It is also known as chromosomal puff.

As this chromosome occurs in the salivary gland it is known as salivary gland chromosomes.

Lamp brush chromosomes were first observed by Flemming in 1882. It looked like brushes.

They occur at the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase in oocytes of an animal Salamandor and in giant nucleus of the unicellular alga Acetabularia.

The highly condensed chromosome forms the chromosomal axis, from which lateral loops of DNA extend as a result of intense RNA synthesis.

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For more detail about Types of chromosomes click here

Other links 



Gene and genome

Linkage and mechanism of linkage

Crossing over, gene mapping and recombination of chromosome

Mutation and classification of mutation

Mutagenic agents and its significance

Structural Chromosomal aberrations

Numerical chromosomal aberrations

Role of DNA 

Structure of DNA and Function of DNA

Replication of DNA

Structure of RNA and Types of RNA

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