12th Zoology

Bacterial Genetics

Bacterial Genetics

In bacteria the cells have a single circular strand of DNA. It is not
associated with proteins as are eukaryotic chromosomes. The bacterial genes,
like the eukaryotic genes possess the features of replication, phenotype
expression, mutation and genetic recombination etc. In bacteria the genetic
recombination results from three types of gene transfer viz., conjugation,
transduction and transformation. (Bacterial Genetics)

Conjugation involves the transfer of some DNA from one bacterial
cell to another followed by the separation of the mating pair of cells. In this,
large segments of the chromosomes and in special cases the entire
chromosome may be transferred.

Bacterial transformation is a process in which cell free or naked DNA
containing the genetic information is transferred from one bacterial cell to
another. It was discovered by an English health officer, Griffith in 1928. The
transforming principle was identified as DNA by Avery Macleod and Mc
Carthy in 1944. (Bacterial Genetics)

In transduction, a bacteriophages acts as a vector, transfering a portion
of DNA from one bacterium (donor) to another (recepient). If all fragments
of bacterial DNA have a chance to enter a transducing phage, the
process is called Generalized transduction. On the contrary if a few restricted
genes of the bacterial chromosomes are transduced by bacteriophage,
it is called specialized transduction. (Bacterial Genetics)

Related Topics in Zoology:

Bio Zoology All Important Topics

  1. Microbiology Introduction and History of Medical Microbiology

  2. Pasteur, Koch, Lister

  3. Structure of Viruses

  4. Viral genetics

  5. Virus Culture

  6. Viral Diseases

  7. Bacteria Structure Culture

  8. Bacterial Genetics

  9. Bacterial Diseases

  10. Protozoan microbiology

  11. Pathogenecity of Microorganisms

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance

  13. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy

  14. AIDS – HIV

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