Cultivation (culture) of Animal viruses (Virus Culture)
Viruses can grow only in living cells. However the culture of viruses
is possible nowadays. The most economical and convenient method of
cultivating a wide variety of animal viruses is the ‘chicken embryo technique’.
In this technique, fertile chicken eggs incubated for 5 to 12 days are
inoculated with the virus particles through the shell, aseptically. The opening
may be sealed with paraffin wax. The eggs incubated at 36oC are ideal sources
for the growth of viruses.
Chick embryos contain several different types of cells in which
various viruses will undergo replication. The yolk sac is a general ideal
medium for the growth of viruses.
Viral cultures are of three types viz., Primary cell cultures, diploid
cell strains and continuous cell lines.
1. Primary culture: Virus Culture
Primary cell culture are derived from normal tissue of an animal such
as mouse, hamster, chicken and monkey or a human being. When cells from
these tissues are processed and cultured the first monolayer is referred to as
the primary culture. A monolayer is a confluent layer of cells covering the
surface of a culture vessel.
2. Diploid cell strain: Virus Culture
Diploid cell strains are derived by primary cell cultures from a
specific tissues like lung or kidney which is of embryonic origin. These
diploid cells are the most employed host of choice for the production of
human vaccine virus.
3. Continuous cell lines: Virus Culture
Continuous cell lines are capable of an infinite number of doublings.
Such cell lines may arise with the mutation of a cell strain or more commonly from the established cell cultures from malignant tissue. Many viruses, which
are difficult or impossible to grow have been cultured in continuous cell lines.
Related Topics in Zoology:
- Microbiology Introduction and History of Medical Microbiology
- Pasteur, Koch, Lister
- Structure of Viruses
- Viral genetics
- Virus Culture
- Viral Diseases
- Bacteria Structure Culture
- Bacterial Genetics
- Bacterial Diseases
- Protozoan microbiology
- Pathogenecity of Microorganisms
- Antimicrobial Resistance
- Antibiotics and Chemotherapy
- AIDS – HIV