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Practical application of genetic transformation

Practical application of genetic transformation

Practical application of genetic transformation

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By genetic manipulation, it is possible to obtain plants with insecticidal property.

Thus, application of chemical pesticides to the crop plants is reduced.

Genetic manipulation is also carried out in crops for making desirable storage proteins, vitamins, amino acids and for the suppression of antinutritional protein synthesis.

Plants are made to produce large amount of secondary metabolites having high commercial value.

Losses during storage and transport of some crops can be as high as 80 per cent.

This is mainly due to biological activities – bruising, heat and cold damage in soft fruits and vegetables.

In tomato the enzyme polygalactronase breaks down cell wall constituents, thus leading to softening of the fruit during ripening.

By inhibiting the polygalactronase by antisense genes the tomato can remain dormant fresh until mature and be transported in a firm solid state.

Antisense RNA is a RNA molecule capable of controlling and expression of particular enzymes which are involved in ripening processes.

Genetic manipulation of flower and leaf colour, abundance of flowers, perfume and shape are now the major targets for decorative plant industries.

Transgenic microbes

The genetically engineered micro-organisms are being used for the commercial production of some non-microbial products such as insulin, interferon, human growth hormone and viral vaccines.

Use of genetically engineered bacterial strain

In 1979, for the first time Anand Mohan Chakrabarty, an Indian born American scientist developed a strain of Pseudomonas putida that contained a hybrid plasmid derived by combining parts of CAM and OCT.

CAM and OCT are the plasmids which contain the genes responsible for the decomposition of the hydrocarbons like camphor and octane respectively present in the oil.

This strain could grew rapidly on crude oil because it was capable of metabolizing hydrocarbons more efficiently.

The bacterial strain called the superbug was produced on a large scale in laboratory, mixed with straw and dried.

When the straw was spread over oil slicks, the straw soaked up the oil and bacteria broke up the oil into non-polluting and harmless products.

In this way, pollution of land and water due to the oil slicks can be remedied and the phenomenon is called bioremediation.

It is defined as the use of living microorganisms to degrade environmental pollutants or prevent pollution.

The contaminated sites are restored and future pollution is prevented.

Benefits from release of genetically modified microorganisms into the environment

Protection of environment – Bioremediation of polluted environment. 0 Microorganisms producing enzymes for food industry.

Microorganisms with improved efficiency of fermentation.

Improved microorganisms for milk industry.

Microorganisms as live attenuated vaccines for health care.

Increasing efficiency of plant nutrition, pest control (safe biopesticides), protection of plants from climatic stress and protection of plants from tumour formation and disease.

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For more details about application of genetic transformation click here

Other links 

Recombinant DNA technology

Gene transfer in plants, Cutting of DNA, Advantages of recombinant DNA

Transgenic plants – Herbicide resistance in transgenic plants


Plant tissue culture – origin and techniques

Basic techniques of plant tissue culture

Status of tissue culture technology in India And application

Protoplast fusion and Practical applications

Single cell protein and its uses

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