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# Surveying 1 Notes CE6304

## Surveying 1 Notes

Surveying can be defined as an art to determine the relative position of points on above are beneath the surface of the earth with respect to each other by measurement of horizontal and vertical distances, angles and directions.

State the principles of Surveying
Surveying is Location of a point by measurement from other points of reference and Working from whole to part.
steps involved in the survey

Steps to be followed during survey are,
(i) Reconnaissance.
(ii) Marking and fixing survey stations.
(iii) Running survey lines.

Engineer’s scale Surveying 1 Notes
If one cm on the plan represents some whole number of meters on the ground, such as 1cm = 10m. This type of scale is called Engineer’s scale.

Representative Fraction (R.F).
If, one unit of length on the plan represents some number of same units of length on the ground, such as 1/1000, etc. This ratio of map distance to the corresponding ground distance is independent of units of measurement and is called Representative Fraction

points to be considered while choosing the scale

1. Choose a scale Large enough so that in plotting or in scaling distance from the
finished map, it will be not be necessary to read the scale closer than 0.25mm

2. Choose as small a scale as a consisted with a clear delineation of the smallest
detail to be plotted.
the types of Scales

Scales used in surveying are (Surveying 1 Notes )
(i) Plain scale.
(ii) Diagonal scale.
(iii) Vernier scale.
(iv) Scale of chords.

Ranging Surveying 1 Notes
The process if marking some intermediate points an a survey line join in two station in the field, So that the line between the two station is a straight line and the length between the station can be measured correctly, is called Ranging

 Subject Name SURVEYING 1 Subject Code CE6304 Regulation 2013 File type PDF